I did not resolve this issue, but am sharing this because of the unsuccessful time spent on Google trying to find a resolution to to this issue. Hoping it will help someone with the same issue working with Excel to refresh data from a SQL Server database.
An Excel user was granted access via an Active Directory group read-only permission to a SQL Server database. His permissions was verified/tested successfully by setting up a new ODBC connection. A co-worker gave this user a spreadsheet that refresh the data from this database on the SQL Server. When the user attempted to refresh the data in the spreadsheet, the Data-Source error appeared below.
A connection was successfully established with the server, but then an error occurred during the login process. (provider: SSL Provider, error: 0 – The certificate chain was issued by an authority that is not trusted.)
Click on the Data tab
Click the Get Data drop down list, and click on the Launch Power Query Editor
When the Power Query Editor opens, click on the Data Source Settings button
When the Data source settings pop-up opens, make sure the data source is highlighted & click on the Edit Permissions button
Please note that the Type under the Credentials says “Not Specified”
The Edit Permissions pop-up will open, in the Credentials section, click on the Edit button
Make sure the radio button “Use my current credentials” is set, and click on the Save button
Notice that the Credentials Type has changed to Windows, click the OK button to close the pop-up, and click on the Close button for the Data source Settings pop-up
Test refreshing the data to see if there still is a “SSL Provider, error: 0” error